Some software tools might help editors of online magazines to check for the originality of articles or blog posts, and in this capacity tools such as Copyscape are ideal. They allow an editor to see if the article in question has been copied or not necessarily and if so to what extent. The tools are wonderful for this.
Paraphrasing tools are also good if you are a creative article writer stuck for a synonym, but aren’t so good in order to change a considerable body of text and want an instrument to paraphrase it. The end results are often nonsensical to readers. Writers who do that kind of thing could have an original text, but no-one wants to read it.
It is fine to use formatting tools and spell checks, but if you’re writing academic English, chances are that a grammar checking tool will not know how to cope with such writing, as it is not natural language or at the very least not the natural language the program tool has been programmed to accept as correct.
For academic writing, especially dissertations and PhD theses, you will need a human proofreader-editor to check your work rather than a program. If you have a pal whose written English is preferable to yours, then ask them to read through your projects and make the necessary changes to grammar and spelling. You ‘must’ have consistent spelling, either US or British English aside from quotations as you cannot change the spelling in these.
If you think friends and family are not proficient more than enough to tackle your writing, you then should consider utilizing the services of professional academic proofreaders and editors. Proofreaders look for errors, and may not comment on the content of your work. They may not comment on the number of padding it includes. That being so you might want to hire the solutions of a proofreader-editor who will comment on superfluous bits of text and give suggestions as to how your work could possibly be improved.
You can ask the editor to basically change what’s necessary or ask for comments only. A good editor will be knowledgeable about the field you’re writing in and can also be able to look for plagiarism as sometimes it is obvious to the trained eye, because the written language changes by using someone else’s words. A software tool may well not be able to pick up on such changes to your written style.
Of course it is best never to plagiarize, but sometimes this is done inadvertently, as you’ll find nothing more standard than paraphrasing. paraphrase blog Citing an author and giving credit score for his/her work should be done as a matter of course.
While this is often a great surface for dancing, it’s not the most attractive and may not complement your event’s concept and colors. You can work with an event furniture rental business to rent a customizable dancing floors.
This could be enhanced with LED lamps and a Gobo spotlight with a design or monogram. It’s a stylish -and affordable – alternative to the traditional wooden floors in virtually any banquet hall or event location, and could be a great match for the upcoming event!
How Dance Floor Rentals Work
When you work with an experienced and professional event rental provider, you can pick out a big portable floor in white and have it set up in virtually any area you wish.
Dance floor rentals certainly are a great option for events such as wedding receptions, bar mitzvahs, family reunions, graduation parties, and other social gatherings. An LED dance floor is illuminated with lights in any color you choose and will be coordinated with your event’s theme. Put in a Gobo spotlight that shines a monogram, logo, or message on to the middle of the floor to essentially impress the crowds. Your occasion rental business can walk you through the process of picking out the correct size and show you each of the color possibilities for LED lighting and other enhancements.
Renting an LED Dance Floor
Many celebration planners and coordinators pick an LED floors to create a visually attractive element with their clients’ event space. This aspect usually ends up being the center point of the room and is the best way to centralize even the tiniest space. Then add flare to your event- it is possible to choose from a range of colors, dazzling outcomes, and lighting options to turn it into something truly unique. Illuminated dance floors which are lit up with a large number of lights and patterns can create from a club-style ambiance to a great or retro setting. LED Dance Floor These flooring surfaces can also be dimmed to make a more subdued ambiance for weddings or other formal occasions.
When you’re likely to host an event and desire to design the perfect ambiance for your guests, consider working with a meeting rental company that offers a variety of dance floor options. This sort of dance floor can maximize your room and help you put together an unforgettable event.
This section covers the average and expected growth rate of a Great Dane. However, you should understand that there are so many factors that influence growth and your own dog might slightly deviate from these averages despite the fact that they are healthy.
This is a detailed chart showing the expected growth, weight and height of a Great Dane at various stages of their life.
From birth, a Great Dane will continue steadily to mature until the of 2 to 3 3 years old. Other Great Danes could be slightly taller on the second and third year and there are others that will pick up bodyweight during this stage.
So if your Great Dane slightly deviate in either direction from the average values provided in the chart you should not be worried. The ultimate size of one’s Great Dane is dependent on many factors like genetics you might not maintain full control of. Other factors like diet and nutrition also play a significant role in determining the final size of one’s Great Dane.
It is important to give a nutritionally balanced diet for your Great Dane if you want them to maintain the desired slow and steady growth.
The keyword is balanced nutrition. Undernutrition can result in your dog having a low body weight along with other diseases that are linked to nutrient deficiencies. Alternatively, according to a study on the relation between nutrition and bone growth in large and giant dog breeds like Great Danes figured overnutrition in dogs from the bigger breeds exaggerates this tendency to generate osteopenia by increasing the rates of skeletal growth and remodeling of the newly formed cancellous bone.
The next sections covers more about Great Dane weight, height and some of the factors that influence growth.
As mentioned earlier, there are several factors that influence the final size your Great Dane can get so you may find yours slightly deviating in either direction from these averages. The real problem and grounds for concern is when your dog is deviating from these averages by much bigger margins.
Great Danes usually grow very big which is one of the reason why they were originally bred for hunting. A report on Great Dane history shows that the breed was always large but what really changed was their aggressive temperament to become a gentle family dog.
Factors like genetics, gender and nutrition greatly influence the final size of one’s Great Dane but many dogs across the breed will stop growing between your ages of 18 and 24 months old.
When a Great Dane is fully grown a male should not be less than 30 inches at the shoulders, but the preferred size is 32 inches or even more and the shoulder size should be well proportioned to his height. The female shall not be significantly less than 28 inches at the shoulders, but it is preferable that she be 30 inches or even more, providing she actually is well proportioned to her height.
You can find so many factors that may affect the final weight of one’s Great Dane but the major ones are genetics, gender and nutrition. If your dog slightly deviates from the averages in either direction then you don’t have to worry. The real reason behind concern is whenever your Great Dane is overweight or underweight.
If your Great Dane is underweight this might be considered a symptom of an underlying disease or condition so you should work closely with your veterinarian to determine the real cause. Here are some of why your dog might have a low body weight. mantle great dane
What do you consider of when you think about cordless Black & Decker? It may seem of tiny cordless screwdrivers or wimpy tools you only find at discount shops. While I don’t think of cordless Black & Decker equipment as industrial grade resources, they really have a multitude of tools that might be handy around the house, cabin or lake home.
The cordless Black colored & Decker lineup contains everything from you fundamental cordless screwdriver, to cordless drills, cordless scissors, tools for yard work incorporating cordless mowers, hedge trimmers, weed trimmers and much more. I have among the cordless Dark & Decker weed trimmers and while it doesn’t have the power of my gas weed trimmer, it has plenty of to trim up around the house and it always starts. Best Cordless Drill The fuel trimmers that I’ve had typically work for a couple of seasons and then I must rebuild the carb to help keep it running.
One of the really neat tools I seen in the cordless Black & Decker brand is a chainsaw called the Alligator. This tool is a small cordless chainsaw with a clamp below the blade that bites along on the wood you are cutting. It really does appear to be an alligator! There is also a normal cordless chainsaw and a chainsaw that one could extend up on a pole to take off limbs a little higher up. Once more, these cordless Black & Decker equipment don’t appear to be something you would use every day but still, I they have some tools I have never even seen.
Maybe you are searching for a cordless screwdriver for you personally hobby store or your camper. Again the cordless Black & Decker fall into line has several that you should chose from. You may get a very inexpensive tool which will be handy occasionally or if you want something with a little more power, try their lithium screw drivers. Lithium tools offer more run time and energy in a lighter weight instrument that may charge very fast. Many of these tools have LED lights in it making them handy when employed in dark corners, probably like removing hinges in the cabinet.
They also handle various drills. While I nevertheless prefer having my heavy duty Bosch drill within my side, a smaller less powerful drill will continue to work just fine throughout the house. Some of the cordless Black colored & Decker drills are fairly affordable, you can afford to possess one in your camper, your cabin or lake home. A lot of times these tools are more than ample for simple odd tasks around the home like hanging photos or drilling a little hole to perform a cord or another thing simple like this. If you do want a bit more power, the cordless Black colored & Decker series includes 24 volt tools obtainable in a combo kit.
One other tool that I guess you can call a cordless Black colored & Decker tool is their personal adjusting wrench. This crescent wrench adjusts to the bolt mind with only a touch. I have read a couple of reviews and while some have been in a position to break them, many felt they were very handy throughout the house.
So there you have it, a few applying for grants the cordless Black & Decker tool line up. This really doesn’t do their line up justice. You merely won’t believe the cordless Black & Decker tools available.
Bitcoin is an online digital currency, like a dollar or even a pound yet with a few exceptions. buy iphone with bitcoin Introduced by simply Satoshi Nakamoto inside 2009, Bitcoin activates in a peer-to-peer payment system where no intermediaries are present and goods could be securely moved between any two people on the particular planet.
It really is associated with a large network of computers and the unit of currency for the Bitcoin system (appropriately called Bitcoin) could be simply attained by joining typically the vast network. Bitcoin provides a quick cheap and protected transaction alternative yet few are willing in order to take the leap for it. So the a million money question still remains, is Bitcoin a new secure investment?
Bitcoin is only a couple of years old, an interesting creation that has awed many and for the report, has attained a name in typically the top financial charts. Its popularity provides spanned and that has led a number of the top businesses like Virgin Galactic to consider it as a good acceptable source of transaction. Bitcoin prices boost at rates of up to 10% and continue to dominate because the leader of the market and this provides made many serious in investing in it.
Another unique feature of Bitcoin is that it does not really have a main bank and nor will do a central government control it. It can a global currency and its creation and existence is behind a intricate and geeky numerical algorithm that enables it to darkness government related problems.
Cases of political instability and government absurdities that jump the economy into shame and business lead years of opportunities in a currency down the deplete tend not to occur in the crypto-currency program. This produces a safe and friendly investment opportunity with low inflation risks.
The particular Downside
With an ever-amazing upside, crypto-currency has its lows. As mentioned, this factor is still using baby steps; in addition to with that will come great uncertainties. Bitcoin prices are unstable; currently increasing greatly and can vary at 30% to 40% in a new month.
The planet is usually still surprised at its emergence and there is certainly very few Bitcoin holders and Bitcoin. This leads to unanswered concerns and cold fear among people as investing in a fresh unpredictable ‘gold mine’ can yield damaging effects. Its newness brings forth lack of regulations and frightens off potential investors.
The enigma encircling the Bitcoin system is a major factor to be regarded. Anything can take place and everybody participating in the Bitcoin marketplace is on the high alert. Tiongkok in December 2013 eradicated the use of Bitcoin and this led to a new drastic drop to its value from $1240 to $576 in just three weeks.
Programmers also determine the efficiency of this international currency and many question the thought of risking their finances for several group of geeks. This prevents many coming from venturing into typically the system and raises the risk regarding Bitcoin investment ever before so highly.
Data logger that delivers measurement and handle for a wide variety of applications. Dataloggers are an important component in data acquisition devices. They can scan a multitude of measurement sensors, do any programmed calculations, convert the data to other products of measurement, and store the info in memory.
Data recorder’s stability and ruggedness make it a fantastic choice for remote environmental applications, including weather stations, mesonet devices, wind profiling, air quality monitoring, hydrological systems, water good quality monitoring, and hydrometeorological stations.
The weather station data logger with files acquisition, storage, transmission and control, along with other functions, is the core element of the automatic climate station. Automative wireless temp and humidity files logger places an important role in the weather monitoring system.
Anyone serious in learning about meteorology and the weather seeks out new ways to observe, record or even participate in the world around them. Watching the elements channels all day long doesn’t exactly fulfill the need to know the proceedings right outside the door. A wireless weather station is among the methods available for meteorology enthusiasts.
A wireless station is an excellent thing to have round the office or home. The wireless aspect is an excellent benefit when you won’t need to worry about unseemly cables and cables running here there and just about everywhere when you have the battery operated station rather. Most importantly the information it is possible to obtain from your station enables you to know instantly what the weather is right outside your front door. Some models have even the capability of futurecast.
There are numerous meteorological readings which might be taken. A few of the natural weather activities which might be monitored include temperature, barometric strain, wind direction and swiftness and rainfall, all of which offer the opportunity of the station really predicting the elements. The really great thing about that is there are weather stations that can run at an excellent 70% accuracy. This could be advantageous for several reasons.
Korea weather When you live a location like tornado alley or along the coast where such disastrous storms as hurricanes can strike you should know minute by minute what is happening outside. One surefire way of monitoring how close the hurricane or a tornado may be is by observing the barometric stress, wind speed and direction. If you have a sudden drop in the barometric pressure then there is a big storm brewing. If the heat range drops quite rapidly and the wind changes path several times in a short timeframe then these are other signs of the significant storm coming to your doorstep. It is a point wherein you might want to go and mind toward your shelters for protection.
On the lighter side, are you contemplating heading down to the beach for each day in sunlight with you lovely partner? A radio weather station can provide you with the temperature outside and a forecast to inform you if it’ll remain nice and sunny exterior or if you need to plan to visit the beach another day due to upcoming rain.
Lunar cycles can be gauged with wireless temperature stations aswell. The lunar cycle has immediate correlation with the go up and fall of tides. This might be a great instrument for a seaman to have on board. If you have a sailboat the wind direction will be important to you as well as you observe how many knots you may well be able to clock in your vessel.
Wireless weather stations certainly are a better choice than a conventional weather station for a number of reasons:
First, you don’t have to wait for the forecaster to inform you about the weather before you leave out the door. You can leave as soon as you have a look at the readings. If you have a weather station that will require as electrical supply it really is subject to energy outages and rendered ineffective. Standard weather condition stations are stationery and unable to travel with you. A wireless station can be used with you in your pocket, in a suitcase, on a ship or any number of transportable containers.
A wide variety of various kinds of wireless weather stations are for sale to purchase. For instance a data logging climate stations can record inside and outside temperatures, wind speed and way, and barometric pressure causeing this to be an ideal buy for someone interested in being a storm watcher or seaman. Current and historical data could be stored for reference. Home weather condition stations can provide the owner with the same thing because the data logging station and time zones, dew level and humidity and a perpetual calendar which can be wall mounted or with an easel to put on a countertop.
Although really obvious that people nowadays are usually educated inside the matter of making love, there are those who will need a little bit involving assistance in that team. If you’re just starting outside to become physically lively, or you’re in the romantic relationship with a reducing intimate relationships, sex instructional video tutorials may just be the thing you need.
Sex can turn into quite a sensual and pleasant activity, as long as you know precisely what you’re doing and why you’re doing the idea. Let sex instructional video clips teach you a point or two, and who also is aware of? You could just discover like totally new side to you.
Sex instructional videos can be great as it can assist you to spice up your own bedroom routine with your own lover. With different strategies that you can study from these movies, you are going to be able to become a much better sexual spouse.
These video clips can likewise help you let move of your inhibitions plus your partner’s likewise and teach you to get confident in your own skin, no matter precisely what physique you have. And because it’s extremely suggested that you watch intercourse instructional videos with your own partner, it can in addition possibly help improve typically the relationship.
You might be thinking, what makes sex instructional vids any different from adult movie video clips? Although both movies will demonstrate people having sexual sexual activity, you’ll actually study some thing from instructional movies as it usually involves a narrative or a new step by step guide.
Whereas sex instructional video lessons aim to offer you a much better comprehension of your body and even how you possibly can work it during sex, porno about the other hand is going to just display people getting sex. If you think maybe that love-making is just like precisely what you’ve noticed on adult porn movies, you’ll be stunned to know that there is additional to it than just this act itself. There is certainly pre-sex games, there’s romance and even there are tactics that will can help you help to make the whole work the mind blowing experience.
If you’re interested to know how you can your hands in sex educational video lessons, you have some sort of few possibilities. Depending on where an individual live and how the culture perceives sex, you can definitely find it really easy as well as a lttle bit challenging to attain these video lessons. If an individual have an adult book store or even a sex shop throughout your community, you can start your search there. You may as well check stores that promote movies and Dvd disks and look for the adult portion.
You may as well look for on the net sites that will sell sex instructional videos if anyone want to shop inside the luxuries of your own own home. leaked onlyfans Although there are various a wide assortment of different titles and sorts online, do take your current time in picking a for you.
Make sure that you check often the generation company and the description extensively if anyone don’t want to end up with affordable adult movie that was packaged as a possible training video. Look up testimonials on which games would be most suitable regarding you. Don’t forget to help ask your own personal lover’s thoughts and opinions on which games for you to get so that anyone can come to a good mutual agreement on exactly what type of instructional online video will finest benefit you equally.
Life Fitness treadmills have already been designed so that they fit well in almost any home. Not just that, but Life Fitness treadmills may also be priced to be affordable for some of the people searching for a treadmill and they have all the features that they need to get a good workout without having to travel anywhere.
Life Fitness treadmills are being utilized by numerous world champion athletes, top athletes, military personnel and health club members.
Life Fitness offers two Life Fitness treadmill lines: Life Fitness Cardio and Life Fitness Sport Cardio. You can find seven different Life Fitness treadmill options in the first line (T3, T3i, T5, T5i, T7, and T9i/e) and two in the second line.
Life Fitness offers the T-series as a primary descendant of its commercial model series, you start with the standard quality T3, their ‘benchmark’ value model, and topping out with the life span Fitness T9i, recommended by Health Magazine.
Basic treadmills are contained in the T3 group of Life Fitness treadmill models. There are two choices in this category viz the T3 and the T3i. Both these Life Fitness treadmill models provide a large numbers of features including classic workouts (hill, random, manual), sport training workouts (sport training, 5K sport training, 10K sport training) and EZ Incline TM workouts. ลู่วิ่ง Display options on the T3 and T3i models of Life Fitness treadmill include display of elapsed time, distance, speed, incline, heart rate, calories per hour and calories burnt.
Both Life Fitness treadmill models can accommodate speeds up to 10 miles per hour and an incline of 15%. The T3i Life Fitness treadmill includes heart features including Polar Telemetryï¿½ and heartrate zone training workouts (cardio, fat burn, heartrate hill, heartrate interval and extreme heart rate). Life Fitness treadmills in the T3 series contain a 2.5HP motor and supports inclination up to 15%.
Life Fitness treadmills in the T5 series are meant for competitive running. The primary difference between a Life Fitness treadmill in the T3 series and the T5 series is that those in the T5 series are capable of speeds up to 12 miles per hour.
THE LIFE SPAN Fitness T5 treadmill offers a wide & long walking area and a powerful drive motor. It includes a few less programs and a simpler display compared to the T5i but features exactly the same durable construction throughout.
A Life Fitness treadmill from the T7 line, adds daily training workouts to the package (30-minute walk, 3-mile jog, 45-minute cross-train) and customizable workouts.
Finally, the T9 series of Life Fitness treadmill models additional customizable workouts, speed intensive training, pace mode, calories goal, distance goal, and time in zone goal, along with Life Pulse TM digital heart rate monitoring. THE LIFE SPAN Fitness T9i treadmill bears up to 400 pounds weight and features a 5/8 inch 60 x 20 inch belt with cushioned deck, 3.5 inch roller and 4.0HP motor. This treadmill series offers a top speed of 12 MPH, inclines around 15% and provides readouts/feedbacks. In addition, it provides 16 preset programs and six custom memory slots for personal workouts and it monitors heartrate through Ergo hand sensors and a wireless chest strap.
The warranty period on Life Fitness treadmill models is impressive. Life Fitness treadmill provides lifetime warranty on frame and shock absorbers, fifteen years warranty on the motor, three years warranty on electrical and mechanical parts and something year warranty on labor. The Life Fitness T9 treadmill series offers a lifetime warranty on the motor and a decade warranty on electrical and mechanical parts.
A Life Fitness treadmill can get users well on their solution to fitness. With the wide variety of workout options available, even on their basic models, users will never be bored. If users are keeping a close eye on their cardiovascular fitness, the center monitoring on a Life Fitness treadmill can’t be bet.
Bees are stinging bugs and their sting can verify painful and dangerous. It is possible to educate yourself on simple facts about bees. This proves beneficial at cutting your fears about bees. If you discover a bee flying around you, relax and don’t swat at it. Swatting brings about bee to feel you’re attacking it also it turns intense. Being relaxed causes bee to go away from you. Also, gather information about any bee repellent that proves simple to use.
Bees are attracted to all sweet-smelling substances like sweet vegetables, open up meats, sweets, and equivalent others. Similarly, possibly perfumes attract bees due to their sweet fragrance. Keeping away such things in shut containers or refrigerators can act as a natural bee repellent.
In the event that you kill a bee accidentally, and if a bee nest is near by, other bees would quickly come attacking you, as they can smell the kill. Even more, being afraid or scared result in bees to be drawn to you as your worry emits chemical substances that attract bees. Similarly, excessive sweating also draws in bees. As a precaution, never feel scared in the event that you come across a bee or find a bee nest near your yard. It is usually best to use a highly effective bee repellent to keep yourself protected.
how to get rid of sweat bees You can test an herbal bee repellent made of tea tree essential oil. This repellent consists of tea tree oil and benzaldehyde. Combination of both of these materials proves repulsive for bees plus they therefore stay away. Alternatively, you can try other commercially on the market repellents for bees.
Another herbal remedy to keep off bees includes a mix of lemongrass, peppermint oil, and citronella. Most herbal bee repellents are safe for use on youngsters and pets. Ideally, you need to use such repellents on collars, tresses, wrists, and sock tops.
Although a bee repellent can successfully ward off bees, yet it is possible to take few precautions if venturing near bees. Have on light colored and smooth textured apparel, as bees are usually attracted towards black colored and rough clothing. Usually do not wear any woolens or leather attire as these irritate bees plus they attack you.
Insecticide is another helpful bee repellent. If you identify bee nests, inject insecticide around nest entrance specifically at night. Further, usually do not flash any light-weight at nest entrance as this may aggravate bees. Use crimson cellophane on your flashlight as bees cannot see reddish light. Put two tablespoons of insecticide dust into a dry and empty liquid detergent bottle. Shake the bottle gently and squeeze it at nest beginning. Normally, this proves effective within several days. If need be, you can repeat the process after several days.
A bee repellent can be available as a spray. Frequently such sprays are environment-friendly and you can utilize the sprays around your garden without any concern with any toxic barrier which could affect children or pets. Sprays prove efficient for a height of more than ten feet. Just about all bee repellents are biodegradable and also have a pleasant odor. Further more, their potency remains intact for many weeks and hence proves very inexpensive.
Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. In case you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:
What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What sort of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage
There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is crucial that it have exactly the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a female to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.
pregnancy loss Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.
Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?
Miscarriage is a lot more common than most people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.
Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women seem to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.
Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in the past the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.
Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages
Genetic testing actually refers to many different types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.
The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.
Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For this reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. In case a normal female result is available, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it could be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.
Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more prone to receive results and the outcomes are usually returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood concurrently the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).
Chromosome Testing – How can it help?
If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the sort of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a minimal chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes one to have miscarriages.
Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.
Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this eventually me?”.
Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.